ad- + culture entry 1 + -ation
Note: Word introduced by the American soldier, geologist, and explorer John Wesley Powell (1834-1902) in Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages (Smithsonian Institution, 1880), and used by him subsequently in a number of essays.
First Known Use
1880, in the meaning defined at sense 1
Time TravelerThe first known use of acculturation was in 1880
See more words from the same year
StereotypeThe preconceived view of the characteristics of a group held by individuals who are not members of that group. These views are usually negative, generalised and inflexible, and ignore differences that exist between the members of the stereotyped group.
Students will develop knowledge and understanding of the nature of communication through a study of:
PowerPoint Introduction (Maxine Johnson - SCA)
Every culture develops cultural norms and customs in relation to the way individuals communicate. Enculturation refers to the process of someone taking on the beliefs, rules and values of the dominate culture, usually in a subconscious manner. Acculturation is taking on other cultures' norms. Social norms 'encode' (inform) the way a particular society or group communicates messages to one another. If the receiver in the communication process cannot decode (interpret) the message due to a lack of cultural understanding the message may not be understood either. The miscommunication can also occur when the sender of the message has encoded the communication incorrectly due to not understanding the cultural norms. The receiver should indicate they have understood the message through some feedback, such as nodding their head, so that the sender knows they have understood.
Verbal communication involves the use of spoken language and can be face-to-face, over a phone or via a speech.
Most psychologists believe that it is in our nature to form relationships, meaning that it is something that is a natural desire rather than learned. Baumeister and Leary (1995) call this a need to belong and claim it is vital for survival. Social exchange theory proposes that relationships are formed for our own selfish needs and are constantly assessed for maximising benefits and minimising costs. As a consequence we tend to have friends who are equals in terms of power and status. Friendships usually require trust of each other and support of each other. Communication is needed to create that trust and support. Just look at the self-help shelves in a bookstore to see how much people crave for quality relationships and how to communicate is one of the main forms of advice offered. Communication can prevent misunderstandings and express commitment to the relationship.
Where there is a power imbalance, the roles are different and it follows that the communication is also different. Communication is more often used as social control, or in other words, to exert power. This occurs at a social level so that any individual who deviates from social norms are brought back into line through forms of communication. On a micro level, this can be as simple as someone raising an eyebrow at you. On a macro level it can be in the use of language. Think about how language changed when Donald Trump became president of the United States. He and his associates used various forms of communication in an attempt to control the message that went out to American citizens and thus act as a form of social control (to keep people aligned with their ideologies). They used the term 'fake news' to try and control and reporting that went against the message they wanted to be heard. Another term that came out of this social control process was 'alternative facts'. President Trump also used Twitter to promote unsubstantiated claims in an attempt to control the message sent out to people and thus perform social control.
READ the Introduction on the website of the Centre for Communication Rights
THINK: Consider how technologies have changed the way people communicate:
Examine ONE of the following theories and identify its strengths and weaknesses:
QUIZ: Communication Accommodation Theory - Giles (Quizlet)
For India (any cultural group but we will look at India) examine:
One way to conduct a cross-cultural study is for one school to visit another school (David Kopycinski - SCA)
LEFT: This image is even better in the Flash version on the website http://www.mapsofindia.com/culture/indian-languages.html
BELOW: THE music video “Ek Sur”, more popularly known as “Mile Sur Mera Tumhara”, was released on India’s Independence Day in 1988. It was a small contribution to the country’s herculean post-independence task of building a unified national identity. The song’s lyrics were written in all 14 languages recognised by the constitution at the time. (The number has since increased to 22.) Playing off India’s many cultures, the performers sing: “When your song and my song meet, they become our song.” In typical Indian fashion, the video is both kitschy and irresistible. It has since attained legendary status, eclipsing even a hi-fi, star-studded 2010 remake. “Ek Sur” represents one piece of the ongoing effort to define who and what is “Indian”, one of modern India’s most pressing challenges.
S.A.P. 2013 'Language identity in India: One state, many worlds, now what?', The Economist, 25 June 2013, accessed 18 2013: http://www.economist.com/blogs/johnson/2013/06/language-identity-india